Antenna Recap: Antenna definition and characterization. Types of radiating systems. Fundamental Parameters of antennas: Directivity, Antenna efficiency, Gain, Input impedance, Polarization and polarization loss, Radiation pattern, beam width angle, Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP). Far-field and near-field regions. Characterization of applicative scenarios for mobile and satellite communications. Received signal strength (Generalized Friis Equation). Characteristics and definitions of noise and antenna noise temperature. Effects of the propagation medium and environment. Examples of uplink and downlink antenna requirements in mobile and satellite scenarios.
Introduction to microstrip antennas for mobile communications. Antenna configurations (patches, microstrip dipoles, printed slot antennas, microstrip traveling wave antennas). Feeding techniques. Analytical models for analysis and design of mobile communications antennas. Design of rectangular patch antennas. Printed slot antennas. Techniques for bandwidth enhancement.
Analysis of antennas for satellite communications. Aperture antennas, horn antennas, reflector antennas. Advanced antenna systems for satellite communications: reflectarrays. Applicative examples.
Analysis of Antenna Arrays. Receiving array in the time domain. Array reception in the frequency domain and Array factor (AF). AF features: nulls, maxima, and grating lobes. Visible and invisible range. AF of uniformly and non-uniformly weighted linear array. Planar and Circular arrays.
Synthesis of Antenna Arrays. Formulation of pattern synthesis problems: field synthesis; power synthesis; mask-constrained power synthesis; external and internal array synthesis. Synthesis approaches: Test and trial approaches: amplitude tapering; z-transform. Amplitude and phase taper: Fourier synthesis; Schelkunoff’s method; Woodward-Lawson synthesis; least-square method. Analytical solutions: binomial taper; Dolph-Chebyshev taper; Taylor taper; Bayliss taper. Iterative procedure: iterative projection method. Introduction to advanced synthesis methods for sparse, clustered, and thinned arrays.