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Imaging and Diagnostic Techniques

Master the essentials of advanced imaging algorithms to help improve diagnostics in biomedical, industrial, and safety applications

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The course presents innovative methodologies with emphasis on techniques based on Artificial Intelligence for the solution of imaging and diagnostics/prognostics problems for biomedical, industrial, and safety applications. Starting from a series of seminar lessons that present the different techniques developed at the state of the art, the course is dedicated to provide the tools and methods for solving imaging and diagnostics/prognostics problems, addressing specific project activities. The projects may have a numerical or experimental nature and can be chosen by the students from a set of possible alternatives

Course Content

Introduction

The problems of detection and electromagnetic diagnostics.


Properties and Characteristics of an Inverse Problem

Forward problem and inverse problem. Inverse problems in two steps: estimation problems and appraisal problems. Characteristics of an inverse problem: ill-position, non-linearity.
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Methodologies for the Solution of Inverse Scattering Problems - Frequency domain inversion strategies

- Subspace-based optimization method (SOM); - Retrieval of non-radiating currents; - Multi-scaling inversion approaches; - Global optimization techniques: Genetic Algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization, Ant Colony Optimization; - Inexact Newton method; - Learning-by-examples (LBE) techniques: neural networks (NN), support vector machines (SVM); - Qualitative imaging based on level set; - Compressive sensing (CS) inversion approaches; - Interval analysis (IA).
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Methodologies for the Solution of Inverse Scattering Problems - Time domain inversion strategies:

- Forward-backward time-stepping (FBTS); - Inversion strategies of time-domain data from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR).
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Further Readings

  • G. Franceschetti, “Electromagnetics. Theory, Techniques, and Engineering Paradigms”, Ed: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 1997.
  • W. C. Chew, “Waves and Fields in Inhomogeneous Media”, Ed: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, “Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging”, Ed: IoP Press, 1998.
  • D. Colton and R. Kress, “Inverse Acoustic and Electromagnetic Scattering Theory”, Ed: Springer-Verlag, 1998.
  • M. Pastorino, “Microwave Imaging”, Ed: Wiley, 2010.
  • M. Pastorino and A. Randazzo, “Microwave Imaging Methods and Applications”, Ed: Artech House, 2018.





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