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Electromagnetic Compatibility

Master the techniques to study, analyze, and solve EM interference phenomena.

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Starting from the concepts of electromagnetic fields and of radiation phenomena, the course provides the students with the methodologies necessary for the analysis and the solution of interference phenomena. This kind of knowledge is of great importance for designers and quality engineers involved in the development of electrical and electronic products. The electromagnetic compatibility of an electric/electronic product or system is a common requirement both from a functional point of view but also from a legal point of view. As a matter of fact, each electric or electronic product, before to be placed in the market must be tested in order to verify its compliance to requirements of protection from interference phenomena. Nowadays, not only American or European market but every market in the world requires the compliance of electric and electronic products to specific electromagnetic compatibility standards. In Europe the compliance of a product to electromagnetic compatibility requirements is confirmed by the well-known CE mark. This is also true for particular applicative areas, i.e. military and automotive, where electromagnetic compatibility has been always considered one of the main issues. In the course also some concepts about the electromagnetic compatibility between electromagnetic source, e.g. radio base station or radio and TV broadcasting systems and exposed people, will be given. The didactic content of the course can be integrated with some experimental activities related to the electromagnetic compatibility testing of a product and the measurement of environmental electromagnetic fields.

Course Content

BASICS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY

Co-existence of electrical/electronic devices and systems. Hypothesis of validity and review of Kirchhoff laws.


REAL BEHAVIOR OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

Introduction to the analysis of the real behavior of components. Real behavior of wires: skin effect, internal inductance of a wire. Real behavior of interconnection. Real behavior of PCB lands, components leads and resistors. Models for PCB lands and real resistors. Real behavior of capacitors, inductors and ferromagnetic materials. Real behavior of ferrites and ferrite beads. Common mode chokes: working and real behavior. Real behavior of electromechanical devices.
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ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIROMENT AND SOURCES OF DISTURBANCES

Source of electromagnetic disturbances. Classifications of sources of disturbances. Natural sources of electromagnetic disturbances. Terrestrial electric and magnetic fields. Lightning strokes. Man-made unintentional sources. Sources of unwanted perturbations in mains power distribution networks. Different kind of mains power supply. Mains frequency variations, 3-phase unbalance, DC in AC supplies, under-voltages and over-voltages. Effects of under-voltages and over-voltages phenomena. Voltage fluctuations, flickers and their effects. Common-mode low frequency disturbances, generation and effects of common-mode low-frequency disturbances. Mains voltage waveform distortions: harmonics and inter-harmonics. Effects on equipments of mains voltage distortions. Mains signaling voltages. High frequency power quality phenomena: transient over-voltages, unidirectional surge, oscillatory wave surge, ring wave surge, fast transient burst, electrostatic discharge, induced RF voltage and currents. Corona effect and discharge on isolators in mains power networks. Man-made intentional sources. Industrial scientific and medical equipments (ISM), switched mode power supply, information technology equipments (ITE), domestic appliance and portable equipment, ignition systems for internal combustion engine, fluorescent tubes, motors. Man-made intentional sources. Radar transmitters, radio TV broadcast systems, radio amateurs transmitters, mobile transceivers.
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INTERFERENCE PHENOMENA

Electromagnetic coupling between electrical/electronic devices. Definition of emitters and receivers. Conducted coupling. Radiated coupling. Definition of interferences, immunity, susceptibility, emission limit, immunity level, electromagnetic compatibility margin. Electromagnetic compatibility condition. Internal and external electromagnetic compatibility. Crosstalk. Models for the analysis and the simulation of interference phenomena.
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ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY STANDARDS

Electromagnetic compatibility standards. Generic standards, product standards, basic standards. General structure of a product standard. Analysis of a product emission standard: EN 55022 (emission of information technology equipment). Analysis of a product immunity standard: EN55024 (immunity of information technology equipment).


EMC TESTING

Test set-ups for radiated and conducted emission measurements. Test set-ups for immunity testing.
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METHOD FOR THE REDUCTION OF INTERFERENCE PHENOMENA

Technique and devices for the solution of electromagnetic compatibility problems. Design methodologies of radio interference filters. Shielding structures and shielding materials. Grounding techniques. Design of interference filters.


EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

Source of environmental electromagnetic fields. Method of reduction of electromagnetic pollution. Procedure for the evaluation and the experimental assessment of the environmental pollution generated by a mobile phone radio base station




Further Readings

  • C. R. Paul, “Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility”, Ed: J. Wiley, 1992.
  • H.W. Ott, “Noise Reduction Technique in Electronic Systems”, Ed: J. Wiley, 1988.
  • P.A. Chatterton, “EMC Electromagnetic Theory to practical design", Ed. J. Wiley, 1992.





    ELEDIA EMC and interference reduction is a fundamental aspect in microwave circuit design



    ELEDIA EMC is becoming increasingly relevant in automotive industry
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